How to share a secret
“How to Share a Secret” is the title of paper written in 1979 by Adi Shamir (best known for his work on the RSA algorithm). The paper describes a method for dividing information in smaller pieces so that the knowledge of all but one of the pieces gives absolutely no information about the original information. Quoting the author:
This technique enables the construction of robust key management schemes for cryptographic systems that can function securely and reliably even when misfortunes destroy half the pieces and security breaches expose all but one of the remaining pieces.
What’s so fascinating about this technique? Here’s a list of properties taken from its article on Wikipedia:
- The scheme is “information-theoretically secure”, meaning that its security isn’t bounded to computing power;
- It’s also “perfectly secure”, which means that its output gives no information whatsoever about its input;
- It’s minimal, because the size of each piece doesn’t exceed the size of the original information;
- It’s extensible, allowing the addition of new pieces without having to change existing ones;
- It’s dynamic, meaning that you can change all the pieces without changing the original data;
- It’s also flexible, allowing each party to receive a different number of pieces, related to their power within the whole chain.
If you read through the paper you’ll find an example describing a situation where a number of signatures is required to pay a check. Again, quoting the original:
If each executive is given a copy of the company’s secret signature key, the system is convenient but easy to misuse. If the cooperation of all the company’s executives is necessary in order to sign each check, the system is safe but inconvenient. The standard solution requires at least three signatures per check, and it is easy to implement with a (3, n) threshold scheme. (…) An unfaithful executive must have at least two accomplices in order to forge the company’s signature in this scheme.
Now, suppose we’re not talking about some company’s executives but instead about Web Services, and instead of a secret signature, we’re talking about users’ credentials. The bank will become some Web application where the user is registered and the money will become the user’s data on that application.
As a side note, I think this analogy describes the problems we’ve been having lately with the password anti-pattern, more specifically with third-party applications asking for your twitter credentials. Not only this situation occurs when you give your password to a third-party application, but also if you’re using other authentication mechanisms – if the third-party application is hijacked, your data can be compromised.
Now, back to our solution: suppose you build your application separating particular objects physically by using Web Services. Also, suppose these Web Services are invoked in a secure way. In this scenario, whenever you want to execute a specific task, a set of Web Services must be called in a specific order.
If each Web Service is given access to a copy of the credential, the system will be very easy to misuse. A possible solution is to divide a secret that can later on decrypt the credential – I’m not getting into details about this process right now – into different tokens that are spread across all the Web Services involved in the process.
Now, even if one part of the system is hijacked or in some way compromised, there’s still no way to decrypt the credential and use it in unexpected ways. Even if the attackers gain access to the Decrypt Web Service, they must also reproduce the list of tokens in the correct order.
You can argue that if someone eavesdrop the connection to the application where the credentials are being sent, e.g. twitter, one could still see them in plain text. That’s a whole different problem not addressed by this solution – OAuth, for instance, solves that problem by requiring the use of signatures based on one time values (nonces) known only by both sender and receiver.